Journal of the European Optical Society - Rapid publications, Vol 9 (2014)

Comparison of the spectral-angular properties of light scattered in the Baltic Sea and oil emulsions

W. Freda


Angular distributions of scattered light, which are described by one of two forms, i.e. the Volume Scattering Function (VSF) or the phase function, are the least-known optical properties of seawater. This is because there is currently no commercially available instrument commonly used for such measurements. In particular, little is known about the spectral variability of VSF. The spectral properties of VSF can be presented by linear slopes of a scattering spectrum separately for all scattering angles. Through research conducted using a prototype Volume Scattering Meter (VSM), the linear slopes were determined for three Baltic Sea marine regions: open Baltic Sea waters, the Gulf of Gdansk and the mouth of the Vistula River. In this paper, the spectral slopes of VSFs of those waters are compared with VSFs of oil-in-water emulsions. The optical properties of crude oil extracted from the Baltic seabed, called Petrobaltic, were taken for calculations. The results show that VSFs of oil emulsions differ from those of natural waters, especially close to the perpendicular direction of scattering. For scattering angles between 70° and 120° there is an increase observed for oil emulsions which distinguishes them from VSFs of Baltic waters. While the spectral slopes of VSFs of oil emulsions differ from those of Baltic water across almost the entire angular range, excluding backward directions close to 180°.

© The Authors. All rights reserved. [DOI: 10.2971/jeos.2014.14017]

Full Text: PDF

Citation Details

Cite this article


P. Kowalczuk, M. Zabłocka, S. Sagan, and K. Kulinski, ”Fluorescence measured in situ as a proxy of CDOM absorption and DOC concentration in the Baltic Sea,” Oceanologia 52, 431–471 (2010).

S. Wozniak, J. Meler, B. Lednicka, A. Zdun, and J. Ston-Egiert, ”Inherent optical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea,” Oceanologia 53, 691–729 (2011).

T. Oishi, ”Significant relationship between the backward scattering coefficient of sea water and the scatterance at 120°,” Appl. Optics 29, 4658–4665 (1990).

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, and R. C. Honey, ”Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter,” in Proc. SPIE 1537, 173–184 (1991).

R. A. Maffione, and D. R. Dana, ”Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Optics 36, 6057–6067 (1997).

E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, ”Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Optics 40, 5503–5507 (2001).

W. Freda, ”Spectral dependence of the correlation between the backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured in the southern Baltic Sea," Oceanologia 54, 355–367 (2012).

H. Tan, R. Doerffer, T. Oishi, and A. Tanaka, ”A new approach to measure the volume scattering function," Opt. Express 21, 18697–18711 (2013).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011).

J. Watson, and O. Zielinski, Subsea optics and imaging (Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2013).

W. Freda, T. Król, O. V. Martynov, E. B. Shybanov, and R. Hapter, ”Measurements of scattering function of sea water in Southern Baltic," Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 144, 147–154 (2007).

M. E. Lee, and M. R. Lewis, ”A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 20, 563–571 (2003).

V. I. Haltrin, and V. L. Mankovsky, ”Analytical representation of experimental light scattering phase functions measured in seas, oceans and Lake Baykal," in Proceedings to IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2651–2653 (IEEE, Toronto, 2002)

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, ”Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment," Appl. Optics 45, 3605–3619 (2006).

W. Freda, and J. Piskozub, ”Improved method of Fournier- Forand marine phase function parameterization," Opt. Express 15, 12763–12768 (2007).

W. Freda, and J. Piskozub, ”Revisiting the role of oceanic phase function in remote sensing reflectance," Oceanologia 54, 29–38 (2012).

Z. Otremba, ”The impact on the reflectance in VIS of a type of crude oil film floating on the water surface," Opt. Express 7, 129–134 (2000).

Z. Otremba, ”Oil droplets as light absorbents in seawater," Opt. Express 15, 8592–8597 (2007).

K. Rudz, M. Darecki, and H. Toczek, ”Modelling the influence of oil content on optical properties of seawater in the Baltic Sea," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 8, 13063 (2013).

V. Drozdowska, W. Freda, E. Baszanowska, K. Rudz, M. Darecki, J. R. Heldt, and H. Toczek, ”Spectral properties of natural and oil polluted Baltic seawater – results of measurements and modelling," Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 222, 2157–2170 (2013).

Z. Otremba, O. Zielinski, and C. Hu, ”Optical contrast of oil dispersed in seawater under windy conditions," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 8, 13051 (2013).

Z. A. Otremba, ”Modeling of the light transfer in a water column polluted with oil suspension," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 8, 13067 (2013).

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

Z. Otremba, and J. Piskozub, ”Phase functions of oil-in-water emulsions," Opt. Appl. 34, 93–99 (2004).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, absorption, and emission of light by small particles (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, M. I. Mishchenko, and B.-C. Gao, ”Efficient finite-difference time-domain scheme for light scattering by dielectric particles: application to aerosols," Appl. Optics 39, 3727–3737 (2000).

J. Piskozub, and D. McKee, ”Effective scattering phase functions for the multiple scattering regime,” Opt. Express 19, 4786–4794 (2011).