Journal of the European Optical Society - Rapid publications, Vol 7 (2012)

Detection of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in motor cortex with coherence analysis

V. Varshney, N. Liapounova, A.-M. Golestani, B. Goodyear, J. F. Dunn


Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is showing promise as an alternate method to fMRI for studying cortical function. Resting state studies in both methods are showing functional linkages. The strength of functional connections is typically quantified by the level of significance of the temporal synchrony between brain regions, termed resting-state functional connectivity. Coherence analysis of resting state allows for phase insensitive and frequency specific analysis. This paper provides a detailed method for undertaking fNIRS in combination with resting-state coherence analysis. We show that maps of inter-hemispheric resting-state functional connectivity between the motor cortices can be reliably generated, and the frequency responses (to 50 Hz) for both oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. Frequencies of 0-0.1 Hz provide robust data as have been shown previously. Higher frequencies (up to 5 Hz) also exhibit high coherence. Deoxyhemoglobin also shows high coherence above 10Hz. Coherence is similar during both resting and task activated states. fNIRS allows for mapping cortical function and, in combination with coherence analysis, allows one to study variations in frequency response.

© The Authors. All rights reserved. [DOI: 10.2971/jeos.2012.12047]

Full Text: PDF

Citation Details

Cite this article


P. Matthews, and P. Jezzard, "Functional magnetic resonance imaging," J. Neurol. Neurosur. Ps. 75, 6 (2004).

S. Ogawa, T. M. Lee, A. R. Kay, and D. W. Tank, "Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation," P. Natl. A. Sci. 87, 9868-9872 (1990).

E. Leniger-Follert, and D. W. Lübbers, "Behavior of microflow and local PO2 of the brain cortex during and after direct electrical stimulation. A contribution to the problem of metabolic regulation of microcirculation in the brain," Pflug. Arch. 366, 39-44 (1976).

G. Strangman, D. Boas, and J. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiat. 52, 679-693 (2002).

D. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. Marota, and J. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).

R. B. Buxton, K. Uludag, D. J. Dubowitz, and T. T. Liu, "Modeling the hemodynamic response to brain activation," Neuroimage 23 Suppl. 1, 220-233 (2004).

G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, J. H. Thompson, and D. A. I. S. J. P. Boas, "A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation," Neuroimage 17, 719-731 (2002).

P. Bandettini, and R. Cox, "Event related fMRI contrast when using constant interstimulus interval: Theory and experiment," Magnet. Reson. Med. 43, 540-548 (2000).

B. Biswal, F. Z. Yetkin, V. M. Haughton, and J. S. Hyde, "Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI," Magnet. Reson. Med. 34, 537-541 (1995).

K. Friston, C. Frith, P. Liddle, and R. Frackowiak, "Functional connectivity: The principal component analysis of large (PET) data sets," J. Cerebr. Blood F. Met. 13, 5-14 (1993).

M. Hampson, B. Peterson, P. Skudlarski, J. Gatenby, and J. Gore, "Detection of functional connectivity using temporal correlations in MR images," Hum. Brain Mapp. 15, 247-262 (2002).

M. Lowe, M. Dzemidzic, J. Lurito, V. Mathews, and M. Phillips, "Correlations in low-frequency BOLD fluctuations reflect corticocortical connections," Neuroimage 12, 582-587 (2000).

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23 Suppl. 1, 275-288 (2004).

H. Niu, S. Khadka, F. Tian, Z. J. Lin, C. Lu, C. Zhu, and H. Liu, "Resting-state functional connectivity assessed with two diffuse optical tomographic systems," J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046006 (2011).

B. White, A. Snyder, A. Cohen, S. Petersen, M. Raichle, B. Schlaggar, and J. Culver, "Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography," Neuroimage 47, 148-156 (2009).

S. Sasai, F. Homae, H. Watanabe, and G. Taga, "Frequency-specific functional connectivity in the brain during resting state revealed by NIRS," Neuroimage 56, 252-257 (2011).

M. Franceschini, D. Joseph, T. Huppert, S. Diamond, and D. Boas, "Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054007 (2006).

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, "Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography," P. Natl. A. Sci. 104, 12169-12174 (2007).

D. Delpy, and M. Cope, "Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy," Philos. T. R. Soc. B 352, 649 (1997).

A. Gibson, J. Hebden, and S. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for nearinfrared spectroscopy of the brain," Appl. Optics 48, D280-D298 (2009).

M. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. Thompson, J. Culver, and D. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured noninvasively with near-infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).

H. H. Jasper, "The ten-twenty electrode system of the International Federation," Electroen. Clin. Neuro. 10, 371-375 (1958).

D. A. Boas, K. Chen, D. Grebert, and M. A. Franceschini, "Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans," Opt. Lett. 29, 1506-1508 (2004).

P. Nunez, R. Srinivasan, A. Westdorp, R. Wijesinghe, D. Tucker, R. Silberstein, and P. Cadusch, "EEG coherency: I: statistics, reference electrode, volume conduction, Laplacians, cortical imaging, and interpretation at multiple scales," Electroen. Clin. Neuro. 103, 499-515 (1997).

P. Welch, "The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms," IEEE Trans. Audio 15, 70-73 (1967).

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured noninvasively with near-infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).

F. Sun, L. Miller, and M. D'Esposito, "Measuring interregional functional connectivity using coherence and partial coherence analyses of fMRI data," Neuroimage 21, 647-658 (2004).

J. Xiong, L. M. Parsons, J. H. Gao, and P. T. Fox, "Interregional connectivity to primary motor cortex revealed using MRI resting state images," Hum. Brain Mapp. 8, 151-156 (1999).

M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging," Neuroimage 21, 372-386 (2004).

E. Gratton, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gratton, and M. Fabiani, "Measurements of scattering and absorption changes in muscle and brain," Philos. T. R. Soc. B 352, 727-735 (1997).

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman- Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, "Fast and localized event-related optical signals (EROS) in the human occipital cortex: comparisons with the visual evoked potential and MRI," Neuroimage 6, 168-180 (1977).

G. Morren, U. Wolf, P. Lemmerling, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, E. Gratton, L. De Lathauwer, and S. Van Huffel, "Detection of fast neuronal signals in the motor cortex from functional near infrared spectroscopy measurements using independent component analysis," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 42, 92-99 (2004).

H. Radhakrishnan, W. Vanduffel, H. P. Deng, L. Ekstrom, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, "Fast optical signal not detected in awake behaving monkeys," Neuroimage 45, 410-419 (2009).

X. C. Yao, and J. S. George, "Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).

A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ""Seeing" electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal," J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061702 (2010).

J. Lee, and S. J. Kim, "Spectrum measurement of fast optical signal of neural activity in brain tissue and its theoretical origin," Neuroimage 51, 713-722 (2010).

G.-L. Laio, and G. Palmer, "The reduced minus oxidized difference spectra of cytochromes a and a3," Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1274, 109-111 (1996).

R. Salvador, J. Suckling, C. Schwarzbauer, and E. Bullmore, "Undirected graphs of frequency-dependent functional connectivity in whole brain networks," Philos. T. R. Soc. B 360, 937-946 (2005).