Journal of the European Optical Society - Rapid publications, Vol 5 (2010)

Concentration measurement of injected gaseous fuel using quantitative schlieren and optical tomography

E. D. Iffa, A. R. A. Aziz, A. S. Malik


In this paper, the quantitative schlieren method is extended to measure the concentration field of an injected gaseous fuel along several planes perpendicular to the jet axis. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is used as a quantitative flow field concentration measurement based on the deflection made by features in the background pattern. The flow field which is located between the camera and the background pattern varies the intensity value of the background points in the transfer medium. The Optical flow algorithm, which is used to measure the deflection vectors in the background due to the change in index of refraction, is modified to consider the change in intensity of the background image. Optical tomography served as a tool to extract the index of refraction of the gaseous field. Mole fraction values at differentplanes perpendicular to the jet axis are obtained and displayed.

© The Authors. All rights reserved. [DOI: 10.2971/jeos.2010.10029]

Full Text: PDF

Citation Details

Cite this article


L. Ben, G. Charnay, R. Bazile, and B. Ferret, "Quantitative imaging of equivalence ratios in a natural gas SI engine flow bench using acetone fluorescence" Exp. Fluids 43, 77-88 (2007).

J. Abraham, V. Magi, J. Macinnes, and F. Bracco, Gas versus spray injection: which mixes faster? (SAE Technical Paper 940895, 1994).

M. Belan, S. DePonte, and D. Tordella, "Determination of density and concentration from fluorescent Images of gas flow" Exp. Fluids 45, 501-511 (2008).

A. Milke, "Development of a molecular Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for simultaneous time-resolved measurement of temperature, velocity and density" (PhD Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, 2008).

G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques (Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

E. Elsinga, B. W. Oudheusden, F. Scarano, and D. W. Watt, "Assessment and application of quantitative schlieren methods: calibrated color schlieren and background oriented schlieren" Exp. Fluids 36, 309-325 (2004).

S. B. Dalziel, G. O. Hughes, and B. R. Sutherland, Synthetic Schlieren (8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Sorrento, 1-4 September 1998).

L. Venkatakrishnan, and G. E. A. Meier, "Density measurements using the background oriented schlieren technique" Exp. Fluids 37, 237-247 (2004).

E. Goldhahn, and J. Seume, "Quantitative measurements of three-dimensional density fields using the background oriented schlieren technique" Exp. Fluids 43, 241-249 (2007)

F. Leopold, The Application of the Colored Background Oriented Schlieren Technique (CBOS) to Free-Flight and In-Flight Measurements (22nd International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Pacific Grove, 10-14 June 2007).

B. Atcheson, W. Heidrich, and I. Ihrke, "An evaluation of optical flow algorithms for background oriented schlieren imaging" Exp. Fluids 46, 467-476 (2009).

B. Atcheson, I. Ihrke, B. Derek, W. Heidrich, M. Magnor, and H. P. Seidel, Imaging and 3D Tomographic Reconstruction of Time Varying Inhomogeneous Refractive Index Fields (24th International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques SIGGRAPH 2007, San Diego, 5-9 August 2007).

R. Cook, and T. De Rose, "Wavelet noise" ACM T. Graphic 24, 803- 811 (2005).

J. L. Barron, D. J. Fleet, and S. S. Beauchemin, "Performance of optical flow techniques" Int. J. Comput. Vision 12, 43-77 (1994).

A. Maurel, P. Ern, B. J. A. Zielinska, and J. E. Wesfreid, "Experimental study of self-sustained oscillations in a confined jet" Phys. Rev. E 54, 3643-3651 (1996).

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity" IEEE T. Image Process. 13, 600-612 (2004).