Journal of the European Optical Society - Rapid publications, Vol 5 (2010)

Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930.

M. R. Wernand, H. J. van der Woerd

Abstract


In this paper we present an analysis of historical ocean colour data from the North Pacific Ocean. This colour is described by the Forel-Ule colour index, a sea colour comparator scale that is composed of 21 tube colours that is routinely measured since the year 1890. The main objective of this research is to characterise colour changes of the North Pacific Ocean at a timescale of decades. Next to the seasonal colour changes, due to the yearly cycle of biological activity, this time series between 1930 and 1999 might contain information on global changes in climate conditions. From seasonal independent analyses of the long-term variations it was found that the greenest values, with mean Forel-Ule scale ((FU) ̅) of 4.1 were reached during the period of 1950-1954, with a second high ((FU) ̅ = 3) in the period 1980-1984. The bluest ocean was encountered during the years 1990-1994. The data indicate that after 1955 a remarkable long bluing took place till 1980.

© The Authors. All rights reserved. [DOI: 10.2971/jeos.2010.10015s]

Full Text: PDF

Citation Details


Cite this article

References


B. B. Parker, "Oceanographic data archaeology: finding historical data for climate and global change research" Oceanography 5, 124-125 (1992).

M. R. Wernand, The mysterious colouring of natural waters; from Hudson (1600) to Raman (1930) (Internal report NIOZ, 128, 2009).

M. R. Wernand, and H. J. van der Woerd, "Spectral analyses of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale" J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 10014 (2009).

C. W. Thomson, and J. Murray, "Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson" in Narrative, 2, 302 (Neill, Edinburgh, 1882).

National Research Council, "Surface temperature reconstructions for the last 2,000 years" in Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies (The National Academies Press, Washington, 2006).

K. M. Lugina, P. Ya. Groisman, K. Ya. Vinnikov, V. V. Koknaeva, and N. A. Speranskaya, "Monthly surface air temperature time series area-averaged over the 30-degree latitudinal belts of the globe, 1881-2001" in Trends Online: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Tennessee, 2002).

N.-A. Mrner, and W. Karln, "Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millennial Basis: Geological, Historical, and Instrumental Records" (Springer, 1984).

T. R. S. Wilson, and J. D. Burton, "Why is the sea salty, what controls the composition of sea water" in Understanding the oceans: a century of ocean exploration, M. Deacon, T. Rice, and C. Summerhayes, eds., 251-260 (UCL Press, London, 2001).

O. von Kotzebue, Voyage of discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits, for the purpose of exploring a North-East passage, undertaken in the years 1815-1818, at the expense of His Highness the Chancellor of the Empire, Count Romanzoff, in the ship Rurick, under the command of the lieutenant in the Russian Imperial Navy, Otto von Kotzebue, 3, 419-424 (Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, London, 1821).

P. A. Secchi, "Relazione delle esperienze fatte a bordo della pontificia pirocorvetta Imacolata Concezione per determinare la trasparenza del mare" in Memoria del P.A. Secchi, Il Nuovo Cimento Giornale de Fisica, Chimica e Storia Naturale, Ottobre 1864, Published 1865, 20, 205-237 (G. B. Paravia, Torino, 1864).

IOCCG, "Why ocean colour? The societal benefits of ocean colour technology" in Reports and monographs of the international ocean-colour coordinating group, T. Platt, N. Hoepffner, V. Stuart, C. Brown, eds., 7 (IOCCG Report, 2008).

WMO, The second report on the adequacy of the global observing systems for climate in support of the UNFCCC (Executive Summary, World Meteorological Organization, WMO/TD No. 1143, 2003).

D. Fu, Z. Mao, Y. Ding, and J. Zou, "Remote sensing research on the influence on the ocean color environment of the East and South China Sea from snowstorm in cold winter this year" Proc. SPIE 7105, 71050T (2008).

E. L. Venrick , J. A. McGowan, D. R. Cayan, and T. L. Hayward, "Climate and Chlorophyll A: Long-Term Trends in the Central North Pacific Ocean" Science 238, 70-72 (1987).

D. Antoine, A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, and R. H. Evans, "Bridging ocean colour opbservations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends" J. Geophys. Res. 110, 06009 (2005).

G. Schott, "Oceanographie und Maritime Meteorologie" in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem Dampfer "Valdivia" 1898-1899, Karl Chun, ed., 198-207 (Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1902).

E. D. von Drygalski, Erdmagnetische, meteorologische, astronomische und geodtische Arbeiten im Umanak-Fjord Grnland- Expedition der Gesellschaft fr Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1891-1893, Part 2, 1, 321 (W. H. Khl, Berlin, 1897).

J. Luksch, Expeditionen S. M. Schiff "Pola im Mittellndischen, gischen und Rothen Meere in den Jahren 1890-1898. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse XIX. Untersuchungen ber die Transparenz und Farbe de Seewassers, Berichte der Commission fr Oceanographische Foeschungen, Collectiv-Ausgabe aus dem LXIX Bande der Denkschriften Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschafte, A. Forschungen im Rothen Meere, B. Forschungen im stlichen Mittelmeere, 400-485 (Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien, 1901).

O. Krmmel, "Untersuchungen ber die Farbe der Meere" in Geophysikalische Beobachtungen. Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, Ch. 7, 1, 118 (Verlag von Lipsius & Tischer, Kiel und Leipzig, 1893).

U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Marine geography of Indochinese waters (Publication No. 754, 1951).

U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Marine geography of Korean waters, 8-9 (Publication No. 752, 1951).

U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Marine geography of the Sea of Japan, 48-50 (Publication No. 757, 1951).

M. A. Frederick, An Atlas of Secchi Disc Transparency Measurements and Forel-Ule Color Codes for the Oceans of the World, 39-41 (Masters thesis, United States Naval Postgraduate School, 1970).

W. Klinkhardt, Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 138 (1943).

J. J. Graham, "Secchi disc observations and extinction coefficients in the Central and Eastern North Pacific Ocean" Limnol. Oceanogr. 11, 184-185 (1966).

R. McGill, J. W. Tukey, and W. A. Larsen, "Variations of Boxplots" in The American Statistician 32, 12-16 (1978).

R. R. Sokal, and F. J. Rohlf, "The arithmetic mean" in Descriptive statistics, Biometry, the principles and practice of statistics in biological research, Ch. 4.1, 40-43 (3rd edition, Freeman and Company, New York, 1995).

R. R. Sokal, and F. J. Rohlf, "Properties of the normal distribution", in Descriptive statistics, Biometry, the principles and practice of statistics in biological research, Ch. 6.2, 101-106 (3rd edition, Freeman and Company, New York, 1995).

D. M. Karl, R. R. Bidigare, and R. M. Letelier, "Long-term changes in plankton community structure and productivity in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: the domain shift hypothesis" Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II 48, 1449-1470 (2001).